As on 24th October teachers were striking and demonstrating, and I do not want them to miss anything, here are the answers to some of the questions we made on this other post. For your own benefit, try to answer the questions yourself, first, and then come to check the answers. The rest will be covered in the classes.
(The Origins of the financial crisis, from The Economist. September 7th, 2013)
- Find a term and its antonym in the text. What type of antonym is it?
Downturn/Upturn: It is a reverse antonym (see p.113. Linguistic competences in English)
Rise/Fall: also a reverse antonym
2 Find synonyms in the text for the following words:
- Turmoil = upheaval
- An excess = a glut, surfeit
- Background = backdrop
- Weak = feeble
- Interest = returns, yield
- Unreliable = dodgy
- Generic term for shares, stocks, bonds, etc. = securities
- a rise = a surge
- a group = a pool
- failure to fulfil and obligation (specifically, to pay back a debt) = default
- organisations = outfits
3. Collapse: /kǝ’lӕps/. Even though it has sometimes been translated wrongly into Spanish as “colapsar” this is a FALSE FRIEND.
The English term “collapse” means in Spanish “derrumbarse”, “hundirse”, o “venirse abajo” when it functions as a verb, and as “el derrumbe” o “caida” when it functions as a noun. It is thus an example of conversion in English. So we say: “The collapse of Lehman Brothers”, “the building collapsed because its foundations had been damaged”, etc.
As may be noted, the verb “collapse” is intransitive in English. In Spanish, the above sentences would be expressed as “la caída de Lehman Brothers” o “el edificio se vino abajo/se derrumbó/se hundió porque los cimientos se habían visto dañados/porque tenía los cimientos dañados”.
Of course, there is the Spanish verb “colapsar” and the noun “colapso”.
Let’s start with the verb. In Spanish, this is a transitive verb which often appears as a past participle in cases like “las carreteras estaban colapsadas por la lluvia” o “la administración de justicia en España está colapsada”. This, in English would be “blocked” or “seized up”: “the roads were blocked because of the rain” or “the administration of justice inSpain has seized up”.
Another use of the word “colapso” in Spanish is related to a medical condition. Thus, we say: “tuvo un colapso”, which in English would be “he lost conciousness” or “he had a blackout”.
It is essential, therefore, to point out that the English words “to collapse” and “a collapse” have no connection in terms of meaning with its Spanish cognates.
The word and phrase analysis will be done in class or we’ll share a google+ doc among all the class members.
With regards to the listening we did, it will be uploaded as a different post.